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Before 2000, from 1966, Romania was centralized: the Institute of Forensic Medicine was, of course, located in Bucharest, while in the other major cities of Romania, several branches of the institution were financially and administratively subordinated to the Centre. Today, the national grid system of forensic medicine in Romania has three levels, namely six independent forensic medicine institutes that coordinate professional activity in several counties, forensic medicine services that solve cases at county level, forensic medicine consultation rooms in the main cities. With regard to private practice, under the new 2000 Act, experts have the right to exercise expert advice in private. In other words, we are not able to give the patient official medico-legal documents, but only to explain or advise the question marks of one of the parties or to interpret the results of an autopsy or traumatic examination. Consent has created an important part of patient treatment and management. The concept of informed consent derives from the fundamental ethical principle of autonomy and the right to self-determination. The central idea of autonomy is its own actions and the decisions are its own. [11] It is a universally recognized, essential and indispensable protective tool for standard ethical practice and helps to assign patients to a row that is crucial to their ability to make clear choices between multiple options in their presumed best interests. [12],[13] Consent in dentistry follows the same basic principles as in other medical prescriptions. Typically, there are a number of different options available to a patient and all of these need to be discussed with the patient, and the oral doctor should explain to the patient the proposed treatment, the risks involved, the possibility of alternative treatment, and ensure that appropriate consent is obtained. [8] Vashistâ et al. and Swapnaâ et al. stressed the need to maintain records formally and professionally to protect against commercial, legal and medico-legal disputes.

Written documents, including medical history, file notes, X-rays, photographs and models are the only existing guiding principles that are important in negligent litigation and must be carefully preserved. All records must be from this period and must be signed and dated. Legally, the dentist`s written records carry more weight than the patient`s memories. [20],[21]The NHS Terms of Use state that dental records must be kept for a period of 2 years. Given that a claim for negligence can arise many years after the event and that keeping records for at least 2 years is inadequate, advocacy organizations suggest that records be retained permanently. This is often impossible for reasons of space, and therefore the advice of the defense organization is as follows:[22] negligence; medico-legal issues; Consumer Protection Dentistry is a noble profession, but the dentist-patient relationship has changed over the past two decades due to rising anxiety in the community and dental profession in the face of growing trends in complaints and lawsuits against dentists. Knowledge of ethical and medico-legal issues is fundamental to dental practice as clinical skills. When providing oral health services, a dentist must follow a specific protocol to avoid litigation in cases of malpractice. Consent is a fundamental and established principle in Indian law. Professional liability insurance, also known as “defence costs”, covers all costs, fees and expenses incurred with the insured`s prior consent to investigate, defend or settle a claim against the insured.

Insurance coverage applies to insurance against errors and omissions made by a professional in the course of providing services. All claims for damages will be heard in court. Like any other field of health, dentists are required to comply with the laws of the country in which they practice. However, in good hands and without negligence, complications can sometimes occur and occur. Complications that arise with proper planning and communication and are handled appropriately do not constitute negligence and are unlikely to result in a successful claim. [26] With the support of the Ministry of Health government, the Dental Council of India should require all dental graduates to take out official and statutory dental liability insurance before being registered with their State Dental Board. The government should cover all its dental staff involved in treating patients, and special benches should be set up in courts to deal with dental/medical compensation issues to ensure prompt justice. [3] People today are aware of their rights and also of consumer protection laws. The medical profession is considered a noble profession because it helps preserve and save lives.

Medical professionals are expected to perform the treatment with all their knowledge and skills. They are also expected not to cause harm to the patient due to their negligence or neglect. Trust is the basis of the doctor-patient relationship. Today, universal access to information is improving, raising many legal concerns. Therefore, health professionals must be aware of their rights, obligations and also medico-legal problems. Sikka et al. reported that many dentists were aware of the Consumer Protection Act, but basic knowledge of the rules and regulations was considered low. They also noted that consent with a written contract was not systematically respected, demonstrating a lack of interest among professionals. [17] Senthilkumarâ et al. and Haripriya and Haripriya concluded through their studies that there is an urgent need to inform health professionals and dentists about medico-legal issues and consumer protection legislation in order to be legally safer.

[9],[18]Prasad SÂ et al. indicated in their study that MDS dentists are more familiar with the Consumer Protection Act than other dentists. [19] Legal procedures are difficult and cumbersome to navigate, so it is best to avoid them whenever possible. Mistakes happen in all professions, as well as in life. A dentist may seek the help of a competent legal representative who specializes in such disputes in the event of legal problems. It is very important to keep dental records so that they can be presented as evidence in cases of malpractice and dental insurance claims in the Consumer Court. What should a dentist do in case of alleged negligence? The concept of law is unique and no single definition can cover all its components. Simply put, the law can be defined as “a set of rules legally enforceable in a given country” [1].

The law affects all aspects of human activity, dentistry being no exception. The interface between law and dentistry is mediated by important health laws, which mainly include the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, the Dentists Act, etc. The ethical standards of the dental profession are in constant decline, with a market-oriented system replacing the altruistic concepts of early art teachers. Today`s corporate dentistry has degenerated into a common business practice whose concerns are strictly driven by profit and loss concerns, despite the advent of forensic dentistry, which ensures that every dentist must keep some sort of record for each patient they treat. An assessment of dentists` knowledge of dental record keeping revealed a very small percentage of dentists who maintain dental records [2]. The implementation and development of the conceptual foundations of health law are still in their infancy. This review is based on the premise that there is a lack of knowledge about the forensic aspect of dentists and patients, which hinders the effective implementation and delivery of dental services. We also provide insight into ethical aspects, ethical dilemmas, appropriateness of consent, negligence, liability, medical decisions, and implications from the perspective of the dentist and the patient. Tags:Consent, dental compensation, dental records, litigation, medico-legal matters This is consent made on a printed form that (like a blanket) covers almost anything a dentist or hospital might do to a patient without mentioning anything specific. General consent is legally inadequate for any procedure involving risks or alternatives [15–16]. By the end of this lecture, the participant should be able to understand all the legal aspects of dental practice.

With regard to forensic medicine in the penitentiary system, the main task of the prison doctor and other health personnel is to ensure the health and well-being of prisoners. The 7 essential principles governing the provision of health care in prison include free access to a doctor for each prisoner, equivalence of care, patient consent and confidentiality, preventive care, humanitarian assistance, professional independence and professional competence [5]. Dental ethics means the moral duties and obligations of the dentist towards his patients, fellow professionals, and society.[6] The practice of dentistry is based on five ethical principles including: Do No Harm, Do Good, Respect for People, Authenticity, Charity, Justice and builds on important milestones such as the Declaration of Helsinki in 1964, the Belmont Report in 1979, the ICH-Good Clinical Practice (GCP) in 1997 and the Geneva Declaration. To select the relevant articles, a manual and electronic search was performed. In January 2017, an electronic search of published literature was conducted in PubMed, Medline, the EBSCO host and the database. The research focused on the literature on medico-legal issues and medical negligence.

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